Soil Improvement

ENGC 6333 Soil Improvement


Instructor Prof. Dr. Mohammed Awad


                        Office:B259,  Phone: 2644400, Office Hours: as scheduled

                        Email.:, Website : site.iugaza.mawad


Main Textbook/Required Textbook::

Purushothama Raj, “Ground Improvement Techniques”, Laxmi Publication Pvt. Ltd., 2005

Note: this book is considered somewhat outdated and a more modern replacement is being sought.

Supplemental References:

  1. Hausmann, H.R. " Principles of Ground  Modification", McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  2. Ground  Engineering – The Institute of Civil Engineers, London, 1970.
  3. Gulati and Datta "Geotechnical Enginnering", Tata Mc Graw Hill.
  4. Colin J F Jones, "Earth Reinforcement and soil structures", 1985
  5. Manfred R. Hausmann , " Engineering Principles Of ground Modification ,1990
  6. H.G. Rathmayer & K.H.O. Saari , " Improvement Of Ground", 1983
  7. Moseley, M.P. and Krisch K., “Ground Improvement”,Taylor and Francis.
  8. Koerner, R. M., “Designing With Geosynthetics”, Pearson Prentice Hall. 


Note: students do not have to buy these books, but should have access to them or something similar.


Semester : Spring 2019

Course Description : The term ground  improvement and  ground  modification refer to the improvement in or modification to the Engineering properties of a soil that carried out at a site where  the soil in the natural state doesn't possess properties that are  acceptable to us for the proposed civil Engineering activities.

The    improved   or    modified   soil    exhibits   satisfactory performance   when foundations,  earth    structures,  earth    retaining   structures  and   under  ground structures are constructed on, within or using the soil.

The   topics  cover   Engineering  properties  of  soft,  weak   and   compressible deposits, principles of treatment-loading (static and  Dynamic), Accelerated flow, Reinforcement, Vertical drains, Granular piles, soil nailing, Anchors.

This course material on  ground  improvement technique will  be  very  useful to undergraduate students, post-graduate students, teachers and  practitioners and gain competence in properly devising alternative solutions to difficult and  earth construction problems and  in evaluating their effectiveness before, during and after construction.

A study of the  many  different approaches to the ground  modification  broadens the mind of any Engineer and  inspires creativity and innovation in Geotechnical Construction and related fields.

A number  of  chosen  field oriented  problems  will  be  solved  to  illustrate  the concepts clearly.


Engineering properties of soft, weak  and  compressible deposits, principles of treatment-loading (static and  Dynamic), Accelerated flow, Reinforcement, Drainage and  filters, Injections, Thermal, electrical and  Chemical Methods- Preloading, Dynamic Consolidation, Vertical drains, Granular piles, soil nailing, Anchors, Design Methods and Case histories.

Course Aims:

To learn the various ground improvement methods with aid of theory

  and practical.

The students will be able to judge the appropriate ground improvement

  technique need to apply with consideration of type of structure, soil

  condition, environmental aspect and economy. They will be capable

  enough to design the various ground improvement techniques 

Course Outlines: Textbook chapters as announced, the following (recommended) Lecture Notes, and any other material the Instructor assigns.

Week 1:

 Introduction (4 Hours)

Different types of problematic soils and their geological formation principles of treatment-loading.

Week 2,3:


Compaction piles, dynamic compaction, vibroflot technique, controlled blasting for compaction.

Week 4,5:


Permeation grouting, Compaction technique, jet grouting, different varieties of grout materials, grouting in difficult conditions.

Week 6,7:


Lime treatment for expansive soils, injection method, lime-columns, chemical analysis.

 Week 8,9,10:



  • Sand drains.
  • Pre-fabricated drains.
  • Stone columns.
  • Vacuum  consolidation .

Week 11,12,13:


 Different types of in situ soil stabilization like soil nails, anchoring, Pre-stressed anchors, etc. Design methods and construction techniques


Week 14,15:


Case studies of different ground  improvement projects.


Grading: Grades will be determined as Follows:

Projects, Research Presentation             30%

Homework , Quizzes, and, Midterm,     20%

 Final                                                     50%

Although instructor is free to make adjustments or modifications as circumstances permit.

Course Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) :

§  Dealing and using observance of soil improvement.

§  Assessment of soil  behavior.

§  Development of research skills and presentation skills


Students are expected to read and follow the schedule in the course syllabus, to read assigned text chapters, to read assigned Lecture Notes, and to seek and read additional suggested resources as provided by the textbook and Instructor.  In addition, students are expected to be alert and attentive with note taking in class and have a demonstrated desire to participate in any discussion.  Exams are to be completed within the deadlines given by the Instructor, and any special instructions for the paper and/or writing assignment(s) are to be followed precisely.  The Instructor will announce all deadlines and instructions as well as provide reminders about the pace or flow of the course.

ATTENDANCE POLICY: An attendance roster is kept (and login records, if this is a web-based course), and students are expected to attend all sessions on time and as scheduled. If a session and/or assignment deadline is to be missed for circumstances beyond the student's control, prior permission of the instructor must be obtained, and arrangements made for submission of the work. Regular late submission of work as well as tardiness and absenteeism will result in reduction of the final grade by at least one letter, depending upon severity. An "Incomplete" can only be given if the student has normally completed at least half the coursework, has a reasonable justification, and makes arrangements with the instructor.

Policies: Students are  encouraged to discuss homeworks with their peers.

The above schedule and procedures are subject to change in the event of circumstances.

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