Toefl exercises

Directions: Choose the one option—(A), (B), (C), or (D)—that correctly completes the sentences.

  1. _______________ are hot is a common misconception.

(A) All deserts

(B) All deserts which

(C) Of all deserts

(D) That all deserts

  1. Medical researchers are constantly looking for ways to control, __________, and cure diseases.

(A) prevention

(B) preventing

(C) prevent

(D) to prevent

  1. _________ pieces of rope are of different thicknesses, the short bend, or weaver’s

knot, can be used to join them.

(A) Two of

(B) What two

(C) Two such

(D) If two

  1. _____________ imaginative stories about the origin of the game of chess.

(A) Many

(B) So many

(C) There are many

(D) Of the many

  1. ___________________________________ by Anna Baldwin in 1878.

(A) The invention of the vacuum milking machine

(B) That the vacuum milking machine was invented

(C) The vacuum milking machine, which was invented

(D) The vacuum milking machine was invented

  1. Dry cleaning is the process _____________ clothes are cleaned in liquids other than water.

(A) by

(B) which through

(C) by which

(D) through

  1. Roger Williams was a clergyman, ________ the colony of Rhode Island, and an outspoken

advocate of religious and political freedom.

(A) founded

(B) the founder of

(C) was the founder of

(D) he founded

  1. The art of storytelling ________ almost as old as humanity.

(A) that is

(B) is

(C) it is

(D) being

  1. ____________ a few of the sounds produced by insects can be heard by humans.

(A) Only

(B) There are only

(C) That only

(D) With only

  1. ______________________ when lava cools very rapidly.

(A) Because pumice is formed

(B) To form pumice

(C) Pumice is formed

(D) Forming pumice

  1. Duke Ellington wrote _____________________________ during his career.

(A) that over a thousand songs

(B) over a thousand songs

(C) over a thousand songs were

(D) there were over a thousand songs

  1. Before the invention of the printing press, books _________________.

(A) that were very rare

(B) were very rarely

(C) were very rare

(D) as very rare

  1. In Michigan, ___________________ over 600 feet deep.

(A) salt deposits

(B) where salt deposits are

(C) having salt deposits

(D) there are salt deposits

  1. _________ a tomato plant from seventy-five to eighty-five days to develop into a mature plant with ripe fruit.

(A) It takes

(B) To take

(C) That takes

(D) By taking

  1. In the United States, ____________________ is generally the responsibility of municipal


(A) for water treatment

(B) water treatment

(C) where water treatment

(D) in which water treatment

  1. Crop rotation _______________ of preserving soil fertility.

(A) it is one method

(B) one method

(C) a method is one

(D) is one method

  1. ______________________ the dollar as its monetary unit in 1878.

(A) Canada adopted

(B) Adopted by Canada,

(C) It was adopted by Canada

(D) The Canadian adoption of

  1. _______ almost impossible to capture the beauty of the aurora borealis in photographs.

(A) Being

(B) It is

(C) There is

(D) Is

  1. Cable cars are moved by cables __________ underground and are powered by a stationary


(A) they run

(B) that they run

(C) run

(D) that run

  1. The melting point is the temperature ________ a solid changes to a liquid.

(A) which

(B) at which

(C) which at

(D) at

  1. There are six types of flamingos, all ________ have long legs, long necks, and beaks that curve

sharply downward.

(A) of them

(B) that

(C) of which

(D) they

  1. Most folk songs are ballads ________ have simple words and tell simple stories.

(A) what

(B) although

(C) when

(D) that

  1. After its introduction in 1969, the float process _________________ the world’s principal

method of manufacturing flat sheets of glass.

(A) by which it became

(B) it became

(C) became

(D) which became

  1. The instrument panel of a light airplane has at least a dozen instruments _______________________________.

(A) the pilot must watch

(B) what the pilot must watch

(C) that the pilot must watch them

(D) such that the pilot must watch them

  1. Seals appear clumsy on the land,  __________ are able to move short distances

faster than most people can run.

(A) but they

(B) which they

(C) they

(D) which

  1. No one knows what color dinosaurs were ______________ no sample of their skin has survived.

(A) because of

(B) because that

(C) it is because

(D) because

  1. _____________________ rises to the surface of the earth, a volcano is formed.

(A) Liquid magma

(B) Whenever liquid magma

(C) Liquid magma, which

(D) That liquid magma

  1. ____________ invisible to the unaided eye, ultraviolet light can be detected in a number of ways.

(A) Although is

(B) Despite

(C) Even though it

(D) Although

  1. Because ___________, alabaster can be easily carved.

(A) is soft

(B) softness

(C) of its softness

(D) of soft

  1. Small sailboats can easily capsize ________ they are not handled carefully.

(A) but

(B) which

(C) if

(D) so

  1. All animals __________ on other animals or plants.

(A) feed

(B) feeds

(C) fed

(D) feeding

  1. Chromium __________ in the manufacture of stainless steel.

(A) using

(B) is used

(C) uses

(D) is using________ added to a liquid, antifreeze

  1. lowers the freezing temperature of that liquid.

(A) That

(B) As is

(C) It is

(D) When

  1. ___________ people are increasingly linked over long distances by electronic communications,

but many of them still prefer

face-to-face encounters.

(A) Although

(B) Despite

(C) Today

(D) The fact that

  1. ______________ was caused by breathing impure air was once a common belief.

(A) Malaria

(B) That malaria

(C) Why malaria

(D) Because malaria

  1. One basic question psychologists have tried to answer is __________________ .

(A) people learn

(B) how do people learn

(C) people learn how

(D) how people learn

  1. _______________ begin their existence as ice crystals over most of the earth seems


(A) Raindrops

(B) If raindrops

(C) What if raindrops

(D) That raindrops

  1. San Francisco has a pleasant climate, ________ and many fascinating neighborhoods.

(A) exciting scenery,

(B) has exciting scenery

(C) that the scenery is exciting

(D) the scenery is exciting,

  1. Frozen orange juice must be packed,  _______________, and stored when the fruit

is ripe.

(A) be frozen

(B) must be frozen

(C) frozen

(D) it must be frozen

  1. In 1989, the space probe Voyager 2 ____________ by the planet Neptune.

(A) fly

(B) having flown

(C) flying

(D) flew

  1. Natural resources provide the raw materials ________ to produce finished goods.

(A) needed

(B) are needed

(C) which need

(D) needing

  1. Aerodynamics is the study of the forces _____________ on an object as it moves

through the atmosphere.

(A) acting

(B) act

(C) are acting

(D) acted

  1. _______________ for their strong fiber include flax and hemp.

(A) Plants are grown

(B) Plants grown

(C) Plants that grow

(D) To grow plants

  1. __________________ in front of a camera lens changes the color of the light that

reaches the film.

(A) Placed a filter

(B) A filter is placed

(C) A filter placed

(D) When a filter placed

  1. The Massachusetts State House, ________ in 1798, was the most distinguished building

in the United States at that time.

(A) completing

(B) which was completed

(C) was completed

(D) to be completed

  1. Geometry is the branch of mathematics __________________ the properties of lines,

curves, shapes, and surfaces.

(A) that concerned with

(B) it is concerned with

(C) concerned with

(D) its concerns are

  1. ____________________ of chamber music is the string quartet.

(A) The famous most form

(B) The most famous form

(C) The form most famous

(D) Most the form famous

  1. Not until the seventeenth century _____________________ to measure the speed of light.

(A) did anyone even attempt

(B) anyone did even attempt

(C) did anyone attempt even

(D) did even attempt anyone

  1. Alfalfa is ____________________ for livestock.

(A) a primarily grown crop

(B) grown primarily a crop

(C) a crop grown primarily

(D) a grown crop primarily

  1. Rarely ____________________ more than 50 miles from the coast.

(A) redwood trees grow

(B) redwood trees do grow

(C) grow redwood trees

(D) do redwood trees grow

  1. Specialty stores, unlike department stores,  handle only one line of merchandise

__________ a limited number of closely related lines.

(A) either

(B) but

(C) instead

(D) or

  1. Thomas Eakins studied not only painting __________ anatomy when he was training

to become an artist.

(A) moreover

(B) but also

(C) as well

(D) and

  1. In 1923, Jean Toomer wrote a book titled Cane that combined fiction __________

poetry to describe the experience of being black in the United States.

(A) and

(B) to

(C) also

(D) or

  1. Endive can be used __________ as a salad green or as a cooking vegetable.

(A) such

(B) both

(C) either

(D) neither

  1. Wild strawberries are _______________cultivated strawberries.

(A) not sweeter

(B) not as sweet as

(C) less sweeter than

(D) not sweet as

  1. Sea bass ____________ freshwater bass.

(A) are larger than

(B) the larger the

(C) are as large

(D) than are larger

  1. _________ large natural lakes are found in the state of South Carolina.

(A) There are no

(B) Not the

(C) It is not

(D) No

  1. Clifford Holland, _________ civil engineer,  was in charge of the construction of the

first tunnel under the Hudson River.

(A) He was a

(B) a

(C) being a

(D) who was, as a

  1. _____________ young, chimpanzees are easily trained.

(A) When are

(B) When

(C) They are

(D) When are they

  1. Rarely _________________ seen far from water.

(A) spotted turtles

(B) spotted turtles are

(C) have spotted turtles

(D) are spotted turtles

Error Identification: circle the underlined portion of the sentence that would not be considered correct.

  1. Dolphins lack A vocal cords but they have a large, oil-filled B organ called the “melon,” which with C they can D produce a variety of sounds
  2. The Ringling Brothers were five brothers which A built a small group of performers B into the worlds C largest D circus.
  3. There A are many species B of plants and animals that they C are peculiar to D Hawaii
  4. Despite A cats cannot see in complete darkness, their eyes B are much more C sensitive to light D than humans’ eyes.
  5. Snakebirds were not given A their name because they B eat snakes, but C because of
  6. D their long, slender necks resemble snakes.
  7. In spite of A their B frightening C appearance, the squid is shy and completely harmless D
  8. In the A sixteenth century, it was thought B that a compass needle pointed C north because D some mysterious influence of the stars.
  9. A test pilot tries out A new kinds of B aircraft to determine C if are they D safe.
  10. Exactly A when was the wheel B invented C is not D known.
  11. Although A geologists have a clearly B understanding of why earthquakes occur C , they

cannot reliably predict when they will D take place.

  1. As a young man A , George Washington liked boating B , to hunt C , and fishing D
  2. Computers are often used A to control, adjustment B , and correct C complex industrial

D operations.

  1. Eggs may be boiling A in the shell B , scrambled,  fried C , and cooked in countless other D ways.
  2. Many places of history A , scientific, cultural B ,  or scenic C importance have been designated national D monuments.
  3. Paper A may contain mineral B , vegetables C , or man-made D fibers.
  4. Science A requires the careful B collect C and organization D of data.
  5. Minerals in A seawater exists B in the same proportions C in all of the oceans of the D world.
  6. Bowling, one of A the most popular B indoor sports, are C popular all over the United States and in other D countries.
  7. Medical students must to study A both B the theory C and the practice of medicine D
  8. The seal, like A the sea lion and the walrus, is B a descendant C of ancestors that once live

D on the land.

  1. Jackrabbits have A powerful rear legs B that enable it C to leap long distances D
  2. Some A encyclopedias deal with B specific fields, such as music C or philosophy, and provide Informations D only on subject.
  3. Goods A such as flowers fresh B and seafood C are often shipped D by air.
  4. Visitors to Vancouver often comment A on how beautiful B its setting is C and on how clean is it D
  5. X rays have A important applications B , not only in medicine and C in industry D
  6. Model airplanes can be A guided both B by control wires C or by D radio transmitters.
  7. Not only rust corrodes A the surface B of metal,  but it also C weakens its internal structure D
  8. Ceramics can be harder, light A , and more resistant B to heat C than metals D
  9. Mold is extremely A destruction B to books C in a library D

Directions: Use the signal words listed to link the sentences below. In some cases, there may be

more than one correct answer. Not all the signal words will be used.




in conclusion


on the other hand

for example


1. I believe that women should have the right to serve in the military. ____________, I don’t believe that they should be assigned to combat roles.

2. Many actors, rock musicians, and sports stars receive huge amounts of money for the work that they do. ____________, a baseball player was recently offered a contract worth over 12 million dollars.  ____________, I feel that this is far too much to pay a person who simply provides entertainment.

3. The development of the automobile has had a great impact on people everywhere.  ____________, the development of highspeed trains has had an impact on people in

many countries, including my home country of France.

4. I used to work in a restaurant when I was in college. I realize what a difficult job restaurant work is. ____________, whenever I go out to eat, I try to leave a good tip for my waiter or waitress.

5. Many people would agree with the idea that the best use for the open space in our community is to build a shopping center in this community. ____________, there are other people who feel we should turn this open space into a park.

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